Tag: brain

How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces

It has long been known that so-called place cells in the human hippocampus are responsible for coding one’s position in space. A related type of brain cell, called grid cells, encodes a variety of positions that are evenly distributed across space. This results in a kind of honeycomb pattern tiling the space. The cells exhibiting

Two seemingly opposing forces in the brain actually cooperate to enhance memory formation

The brain allows organisms to learn and adapt to their surroundings. It does this by literally changing the connections, or synapses, between neurons, strengthening meaningful patterns of neural activity in order to store information. The existence of this process—brain plasticity—has been known for some time. But actually, there are two different types of brain plasticity

New study finds thalamus wakes the brain during development

Consciousness requires continuous, internally generated activity in the brain. The modulation of this activity is the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of generation of sleep, dreams, and perception. Achieving such activity is thus an important milestone in normal brain maturation, which occurs around birth. Successful transition to this activity indicates a good prognosis for

Olfactory cells may act as ‘Trojan horse,’ carry anticancer therapy to deadly brain tumors

A special type of cell essential to the ability of olfactory neurons to regenerate may be genetically engineered to deliver anticancer therapy to the dangerous brain tumors called glioblastomas. In their report published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) researchers describe using olfactory ensheathing cells to deliver an anticancer

New developments in EEG brain scans could help spot mental disorders early

Patients suffering from mental and neurological disorders, including autism, ADHD and dementia, could benefit from new developments in brain scanning technology, according to a new study published in The Neurodiagnostic Journal. Recent advances in electroencephalography (EEG) technology, which may one day be used to measure brain function throughout a patient’s lifespan, could encourage earlier diagnoses

Why the brain struggles to get off the sofa

About 30% of adults and 80% of teenagers today do not meet the minimum levels of daily physical activity for staying healthy, as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Previous studies have already demonstrated that there is a gap between the intention to play sport and actually playing it among individuals with a leaning

Malicious brain cell identified—surprising finding fills gap in understanding astrocytes’ role in brain disease

Astrocytes—the star-shaped cells of our brain—are very busy. Their job description includes maintaining the blood-brain barrier, removing excess neurotransmitters, repairing brain tissue and more. Their important role in brain function suggests astrocytes are also involved in disease. Scientists are particularly interested in uncovering how they may drive inflammation in the brain. Brain inflammation is linked

How the brain forgets on purpose

Researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum and the University Hospital of Gießen and Marburg, in collaboration with colleagues from Bonn, the Netherlands, and the UK, have analysed what happens in the brain when humans want to voluntarily forget something. They identified two areas of the brain – the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus – whose activity patterns

How the brain creates the subjective experience of time

Space and time are closely related — not just in physics, but also in the brain. This intimate connection becomes clearer when we take a look at how our brains form episodic memories. Episodic memories are autobiographical memories — that is, memories about specific events that happened to someone at a specific point in time

Study Finds Some Patients With A-Fib Have Hidden Brain Damage

MONDAY, Aug. 27, 2018 — In a new study of patients with the heart rhythm disorder atrial fibrillation (a-fib), 4 in 10 had previously undetected brain damage, though none had a history of stroke or mini-stroke. This brain damage could put them at risk for mental decline and dementia, researchers said. Their study included nearly