Tag: Genes

Massive sequencing study links rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes: Scientists identify new genetic targets for disease research and potentially drug development

An international consortium of scientists has analyzed protein-coding genes from nearly 46,000 people, linking rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes. The study, one of the largest known of its type, includes data from people of European, African American, Hispanic/Latino, East Asian, and South Asian ancestries. From this large cohort — roughly 21,000 individuals with

‘Master pacemaker’ for biological clocks identified

What makes a biological clock tick? According to a new study from U of T Mississauga, the surprising answer lies with a gene typically associated with stem and cancer cells. In the first study of its kind for the field of circadian biology, UTM researchers used RNA sequencing to observe the expression of genes in

Barely scratching the surface: A new way to make robust membranes

Argonne researchers have demonstrated a new technique’s viability for membranes. Whether it’s tap water or a cup of coffee, almost everything we drink passes through some kind of filter. The ability to transform liquids this way is essential to daily life, yet it often rests on relatively delicate membranes that can quickly clog or degrade.

Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome

Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the

‘Nested sequences’: An indispensable mechanism for forming memories

Repetition is the best method for memorization, for neurons themselves. This is the principle behind what neurobiologists call sequence reactivations: during sleep, neurons in the hippocampus related to a task activate very quickly in turn in a precise order, which consolidates the memory of this task. Sequence reactivations are fundamental for long-term memorization and for

CRISPR gene editing will find applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery

The CRISPR genome editing technique promises to be a “transformative leap” in genetic engineering and therapy, affecting almost every area of medicine. That includes plastic surgery, with potential advances ranging from prevention of craniofacial malformations, to therapeutic skin grafts, to new types of rejection-free transplants, according to a paper in the November issue of Plastic

Genes, Not Diet, May Be Key to Gout Flare-Ups

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 — Although many people suffering from painful gout flare-ups point to diet as the culprit, new research suggests DNA plays a much bigger role. The findings challenge the long-held belief that diet is the major factor in gout, a joint disease that causes extreme pain and swelling. Gout is caused by

Genetic disease healed using genome editing

Parents of newborns may be familiar with the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria: in Switzerland, all newborn babies are screened for this genetic disease. If a baby is found to have phenylketonuria, it needs a special diet so that the amino acid phenylalanine does not accumulate in the body. Excess phenylalanine delays mental and motor development. If

Decoding the regulation of cell survival: A major step towards preventing neurons from dying

An interdisciplinary and international research group led by Dr. Volker Busskamp from the Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden at the TU Dresden (CRTD) has decoded the regulatory impact on neuronal survival of a small non-coding RNA molecule, so-called miRNA, at the highest resolution to date. This deciphering of gene regulation primes applications for strengthening neurons

Pioneering biologists create a new crop through genome editing: From wild plant to crop: CRISPR-Cas9 revolutionizes breeding, New tomato contains more valuable antioxidants

Crops such as wheat and maize have undergone a breeding process lasting thousands of years, in the course of which  humankind has gradually modified the properties of the wild plants in order to adapt them to his needs. One motive was, and still is, higher yields. One “side effect” of this breeding has been a

Making mice a tiny bit more human to study preterm birth: Research enhances ability to study biology of persistent public health problem

Preterm birth remains a global epidemic linked to a lifetime of potential health complications. It also is difficult to study in living creatures — especially the uniquely precise biology of preterm birth in humans. Researchers report in PLoS Biology successfully inserting just enough human DNA into transgenic laboratory mice that it allowed the team to

Does our environment affect the genes in our brains?

Is there a link between differences in IQ test performance and the activity of certain genes? Researchers from Charité РUniversitätsmedizin Berlin have shown that modifications in the structure of a specific gene have a negative impact on individual test performance. This suggests that environmentally induced epigenetic changes to our genetic material have a greater

Eight of ten people with cancer risk genes don’t know it

Genomic screening of more than 50,000 people shows that more than 80% of those who carry an identifiable genetic risk for breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancer don’t know it despite frequent interaction with the healthcare system. The findings were published Sept. 21 in the journal JAMA Network Open. In the absence of routine screening,