Tag: Immune System

Mumps study shows immunity gaps among vaccinated people: College-aged study participants received MMR as children

Immunity against mumps virus appears insufficient in a fraction of college-aged people who were vaccinated in childhood, research from Emory Vaccine Center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates. The findings highlight the need to better understand the immune response to mumps and mumps vaccines. In the last 15 years, several mumps outbreaks

Pancreas on a chip: Organ-on-a-chip and stem-cell tech combined: Organ-on-a-chip and stem-cell tech

By combining two powerful technologies, scientists are taking diabetes research to a whole new level. In a study led by Harvard University’s Kevin Kit Parker, microfluidics and human, insulin-producing beta cells have been integrated in an “Islet-on-a-Chip.” The new device makes it easier for scientists to screen insulin-producing cells before transplanting them into a patient,

Genetic risk is associated with differences in gut microbiome

Children with a high genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes have different gut microbiomes than children with a low risk, according to a new study from Linköping University in Sweden and the University of Florida in the US. The results published in the scientific journal Nature Communications suggest that genetic risk can shape an

New insights into the mechanism of vaccine-induced T cell immunity

A team led by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research has gained new insights into the mechanism of vaccine-induced T cell immunity utilizing single-cell RNA sequencing and metabolic profiling techniques. Though numerous vaccines induce and amplify T cells, a critical part of the body’s adaptive immune system, there is still an information gap regarding

Helping transplanted stem cells stick around and do their jobs: New microgel encapsulation method paves the way for more efficient cell therapies

Bone marrow transplants of hematopoietic stem cells have become standard treatment for a host of conditions including cancers of the blood and lymphatic systems, sickle cell anemia, inherited metabolic disorders, and radiation damage. Unfortunately, many bone marrow transplants fail due to rejection by the patient’s immune system or graft-versus-host disease (in which the transplanted marrow

How inhaled fungal spores cause fatal meningitis

Pathogenic fungal spores capitalize on host immune cells to escape the lung and gain access to the brain to cause fatal disease in mice, according to a study published June 27 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Christina Hull of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and colleagues. These insights into the interactions between pathogenic fungal

How hepatitis B and delta viruses establish infection of liver cells: Researchers explore infection using new cell culture system

Princeton University researchers have developed a new, scalable cell culture system that allows for detailed investigation of how host cells respond to infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and delta virus (HDV). The paper describing their findings was published online on June 18, 2019 in the journal Hepatology. HBV causes an acute illness that is usually

Special fibroblasts help pancreatic cancer cells evade immune detection

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Mostly chemoresistant, PDAC so far has no effective treatment. Understanding the connective tissue, called stroma, that surrounds, nurtures, and even protects PDAC tumors, is key to developing effective therapeutics. “PDAC patients are diagnosed really late, so we don’t know they’re

New strategy of reprogramming regulatory T cells may improve cancer therapies: Converting immunosuppressive cells into inflammatory cells appears to prime tumors for immune checkpoint blockade

While therapies that harness the power of the immune system against cancer have made remarkable progress against certain types of tumors, they still remain ineffective in most cancer patients. A new study from the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases (CIID) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describes a method of reprogramming the regulatory T cells

Cause of sepsis-induced lung injury

A KAIST research team succeeded in visualizing pulmonary microcirculation and circulating cells in vivo with a custom-built 3D intravital lung microscopic imaging system. They found a type of leukocyte called neutrophils aggregate inside the capillaries during sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI), leading to disturbances and dead space in blood microcirculation. According to the researchers, this

New imaging technique reveals ‘burst’ of activity before cell death: Novel dual-PWS platform reveals connections between macromolecular structure and dynamic movement in the chromatin within eukaryotic cells

Studying the movement of tiny cells is no small task. For chromatin, the group of DNA, RNA, and protein macromolecules packed within our genome, motion is an integral part of its active role as a regulator of how our genes get expressed or repressed. “Understanding macromolecular motion is critical, but scientists know very little about

Sexual behavior may influence gut microbiome: Researchers say men who have sex with men have unique microbiomes, may impact immune system

A person’s sexual behavior could affect their microbiome and immune system, potentially elevating their risk of HIV infection, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. The study was published last week in the journal PLOS Pathogens. The microbiome, a community of microbes in the gut, play a

Specialized lung cells appear very early in development: Fetal signaling pathways may offer future targets for treating lung injury

Specialized lung cells appear in the developing fetus much earlier than scientists previously thought. A new animal study reports how cells that become alveoli, the tiny compartments in which gas exchange occurs in the lung, begin their specialized roles very early in prenatal life. The researchers say that investigating the fetal signaling pathways active in