Tag: Intelligence

Low intelligence linked to suicide risk later in life

People with low scores on intelligence tests in adolescence run a higher risk of suicide and suicide attempt later in life. That is according to a study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden that followed almost 50,000 Swedish men from the 1970s until recently. The study is published in the journal Psychological Medicine. Prior studies have

Artificial intelligence approaches may improve diagnostics of kidney disease

Two new studies reveal that modern machine learning—a branch of artificial intelligence in which systems learn from data, identify patterns, and make decisions—may augment traditional diagnostics of kidney disease. The findings appear in an upcoming issue of JASN. Pathologists often classify various kidney diseases on the basis of visual assessments of biopsies from patients’ kidneys;

Researchers refine guidelines for pediatric brain injuries: Measuring carbon dioxide lines through the artery more effective than noninvasive method

When a child suffers a head trauma, medical professionals are in high gear to prevent further damage to a developing brain. Measuring and regulating the child’s level of carbon dioxide is critical to ensuring the brain is getting enough blood oxygen to prevent a secondary brain injury. High carbon dioxide can increase intracranial pressure, while

Female leadership affects wage-gap and firm performance

A new paper in The Economic Journal, published by Oxford University Press, finds that female executives decrease the wage-gap for women at the top of a firm while widening it at the bottom. This study also finds that the lack of women at the executive level has a negative impact on firm performance, especially in

Exercise improves brain function in overweight and obese individuals

New findings out of the University of Tübingen show that, on top of its benefits for metabolism, mood, and general health, exercise also improves brain function. In recent studies, researchers learned that obese and overweight individuals are prone to insulin resistance in the brain, where it provides information about current nutritional status, as well as

Looking at how the brain reacts to boredom could help people cope

Boredom is a common human experience. But how people cope with or handle being bored is important for mental health. “Everybody experiences boredom,” said Sammy Perone, Washington State University assistant professor in the Department of Human Development. “But some people experience it a lot, which is unhealthy. So, we wanted to look at how to

Molecular scissors stabilize the cell’s cytoskeleton

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Villigen, Switzerland, have for the first time elucidated the structure of important enzymes in human cells that alter essential building blocks of the cellular cytoskeleton. This reveals the missing part of a cycle that regulates the build-up or breakdown of supporting elements of the cell. The enzymes

Motherhood can deliver body image boost: Study links perfectionism and breast size dissatisfaction — but only in childless women

New research indicates that perfectionism is related to breast size dissatisfaction, but only in non-mothers — suggesting that mothers are more comfortable with their bodies. The study, carried out by Professor Viren Swami of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) and academics from Sapienza University of Rome, has been published in the journal Body Image. Of the

The brain consumes half of a child’s energy — and that could matter for weight gain: New paper proposes that variation in brain energy expenditure during childhood could be linked to obesity risk

Weight gain occurs when an individual’s energy intake exceeds their energy expenditure — in other words, when calories in exceed calories out. What is less well understood is the fact that, on average, nearly half of the body’s energy is used by the brain during early childhood. In a new paper published in the journal

Brain network activity can improve in epilepsy patients after surgery

Successful epilepsy surgery can improve brain connectivity similar to patterns seen in people without epilepsy, according to a new study published in the journal Neurosurgery. The Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) study of 15 people with temporal lobe epilepsy is the first to show improvements in brain networks after surgery compared to a group of

Older adults expect to lose brain power, but most don’t ask doctors how to prevent dementia: Many in their 50s and early 60s buy supplements or do puzzles in hopes of protecting brain health, but may miss out on effective strategies

Many Americans in their 50s and early 60s are worried about declining brain health, especially if they have loved ones with memory loss and dementia, a new national poll finds. But while the majority of those polled say they take supplements or do puzzles in an effort to stave off brain decline, very few of

Detecting dementia’s damaging effects before it’s too late

Scientists might have found an early detection method for some forms of dementia, according to new research by the University of Arizona and the University of Toronto’s Baycrest Health Sciences Centre. According to the study published in the journal Neuropsychologia last month, patients with a rare neurodegenerative brain disorder called Primary Progressive Aphasia, or PPA,

Why creative experts may be better at imagining the future

Humans use imagination a lot, whether it be thinking about what’s for dinner later tonight or trying to imagine what someone else on the other side of the world may be experiencing after reading the news. As situations become farther away from reality and more distal, imagining a situation becomes more difficult. The limits to

What makes memories stronger? Researchers shed new light on how the brain solidifies important memories

A team of scientists at NeuroElectronics Research Flanders (NERF- empowered by imec, KU Leuven and VIB) found that highly demanding and rewarding experiences result in stronger memories. By studying navigation in rats, the researchers traced back the mechanism behind this selective memory enhancement to so-called replay processes in the hippocampus, the memory-processing center of the

Early lipids boost brain growth for vulnerable micro-preemies

Dietary lipids, already an important source of energy for tiny preemies, also provide a much-needed brain boost by significantly increasing global brain volume as well as increasing volume in regions involved in motor activities and memory, according to research presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2019 Annual Meeting. “Compared with macronutrients like carbohydrates and proteins,