Tag: Leukemia

Helping transplanted stem cells stick around and do their jobs: New microgel encapsulation method paves the way for more efficient cell therapies

Bone marrow transplants of hematopoietic stem cells have become standard treatment for a host of conditions including cancers of the blood and lymphatic systems, sickle cell anemia, inherited metabolic disorders, and radiation damage. Unfortunately, many bone marrow transplants fail due to rejection by the patient’s immune system or graft-versus-host disease (in which the transplanted marrow

Major breakthrough in the treatment of leukemia

A molecular process involved in the action of anti-leukemia drugs has been discovered at Université de Montréal’s Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC). While calling into question a central tenet of oncology, this discovery, published today in the journal Cancer Cell, also holds promise for the development of effective treatments in the near

Targeted therapy proves effective against aggressive rare blood cancer: Clinical study treating BPDCN with tagraxofusp led to first FDA approval for the disease

A multi-institutional clinical trial has given good results for a targeted therapy to treat a rare, aggressive blood cancer known as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic-cell neoplasm (BPDCN). Details on the trial, which supported Food and Drug Administration approval of the tagraxofusp therapy in December 2018, have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Diagnosed

Mechanism of resistance to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma identified: A conserved stress response mechanism leads to BRAF inhibitor resistance through AP-1 activation

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer, but recent advances in targeted therapies have improved the prognosis for many patients. Unfortunately, for some patients these positive outcomes are not long lasting, due to the development of drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have discovered a mechanism by which

Radiomics predicts who will benefit from chemotherapy

Using data from computed tomography (CT) images, researchers may be able to predict which lung cancer patients will respond to chemotherapy, according to a new study published in the journal Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. Platinum-based chemotherapy is typically the first-line treatment of advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only about one in four patients responds

New form of hereditary osteoporosis

A research group headed by Professor Outi Mäkitie, University of Helsinki, Finland, identified in families with childhood-onset osteoporosis disease-causing mutations in a gene that had previously not been connected with the skeletal system or osteoporosis. “Through extensive genetic research, we identified a gene defect underlying osteoporosis in two Finnish families with several affected family members.

Advancing therapy by measuring the ‘games’ cancer cells play

Cleveland: Despite rapid advances in targeted therapies for cancer, tumors commonly develop resistance to treatment. When resistance emerges, tumor cells continue to grow unchecked, despite all attempts to slow cancer progression. While mutations in cancer cells significantly affect drug sensitivity, it is increasingly recognized that ecological interactions between cells can also play a role. Jacob

Interaction between immune factors triggers cancer-promoting chronic inflammation: Blocking IL-33/Treg axis prevents development of skin and colon cancer in mice with chronic inflammation

A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified interaction between two elements of the immune system as critical for the transformation of a protective immune response into chronic, cancer-promoting inflammation. In their report published in PNAS, the investigators demonstrate that elevated levels of the immune factor IL-33 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which suppress

White blood cells related to allergies may also be harnessed to destroy cancer cells: Eosinophil immune cells are capable of killing colon cancer cells, researchers say

A new Tel Aviv University study finds that eosinophils — white blood cells that may have played an evolutionary role in combating parasites, but which are today responsible for chronic asthma and modern allergies — may be used to eliminate malignant colon cancer cells. The research was led by Prof. Ariel Munitz of the Department

More accurate leukemia diagnosis expected as researchers refine leukemia classification

Like cartographers completing a map, investigators have identified multiple new subtypes of the most common childhood cancer—research that will likely improve the diagnosis and treatment of high-risk patients. St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists led the study, which appears as an advance online publication today in the journal Nature Genetics. Researchers used integrated genomic analysis,

Relapsed leukemia flies under immune system’s radar

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive cancer of the blood, often are treated with stem cell transplantation, in which a compatible donor’s blood-forming cells are transplanted into a patient. The donor’s immune cells then attack and kill the leukemia cells. But even if this treatment initially is successful, many patients experience a recurrence

Loss of protein p53 helps cancer cells multiply in ‘unfavourable’ conditions: The loss of tumor protein p53 ensures cancer cells can still multiply in a hostile environment that lacks proper growth stimuli

Researchers have discovered a novel consequence of loss of the tumour protein p53 that promotes cancer development, according to new findings in eLife. The study in mouse and human cells, from the Netherlands Cancer Institute, suggests that multiplication of cancer cells in the absence of appropriate growth stimuli is supported by the additional loss of

Cancer hijacks the microbiome to glut itself on glucose

Cancer needs energy to drive its out-of-control growth. It gets energy in the form of glucose, in fact consuming so much glucose that one method for imaging cancer simply looks for areas of extreme glucose consumption — where there is consumption, there is cancer. But how does cancer get this glucose? A University of Colorado

Immediate compression could help prevent complications after deep-vein thrombosis: Study supports use of this simple, low-cost intervention even for patients without symptoms

People with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) can substantially cut their risk of potentially debilitating complications by starting adequate compression therapy in the first twenty-four hours of DVT therapy (known as the acute phase of treatment), suggests a study published today in the journal Blood. DVT occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep vein, commonly