Tag: Lymphoma

Genetic disease healed using genome editing

Parents of newborns may be familiar with the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria: in Switzerland, all newborn babies are screened for this genetic disease. If a baby is found to have phenylketonuria, it needs a special diet so that the amino acid phenylalanine does not accumulate in the body. Excess phenylalanine delays mental and motor development. If

Mitochondria come together to kill cancer cells: Uncovered details of a molecular pathway in cancer cells could lead to improved treatment

A team of Hokkaido University scientists studied the molecules involved in mitochondrial movements within highly invasive breast cancer cells. They identified a pathway that ultimately leads to the dispersion of these energy-generating organelles towards the cells’ periphery, increasing cancer invasiveness. When this pathway was blocked, mitochondria aggregated within the cell’s center, where they started overproducing

New insights into what drives organ transplant rejection: Subset of cells appear to trigger rejection of skin grafts; pre-treating organs could have positive implications for face transplants

When it comes to transplant rejection, some organs are far trickier than others. Some transplantable organs, such as the liver, are readily accepted by the recipient’s immune system, rarely triggering an immune response and rejection. But the skin is a very different matter: Skin grafts have a high rate of rejection for unknown reasons. Investigators

How damaging immune cells develop during tuberculosis

Insights into how harmful white blood cells form during tuberculosis infection point to novel targets for pharmacological interventions, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Valentina Guerrini and Maria Laura Gennaro of Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, and colleagues. Foam cells are a type of white blood cell, known as

Massive effort yields image-based cell sorting technology

Invented over 50 years ago, flow cytometry-based cell sorting has become a widely used tool in biology labs for physically isolating cells based on their global surface marker expression profiles. But on August 27 in the journal Cell, an international, multi-institutional team of researchers unveil the next evolution in this critical process, “Image-Activated Cell Sorting,”

Major new vulnerability of childhood leukemia uncovered

Childhood leukemia is a diagnosis that no family ever wants to endure. While the treatment of most types of leukemia has improved steadily over the years, a few specific types remain very difficult to treat. One of these is called “mixed lineage leukemia,” and for children affected by this cancer, their chance of survival is

Kidney cancer’s developmental source revealed: First human kidney cell atlas study across the human lifespan

In the first experiment of its kind, scientists have revealed the precise identity of cancer cells of the most common childhood and adult kidney cancers. Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the University of Cambridge, University of Newcastle and their collaborators showed that the cancer cells are versions of specific healthy cells from developing or

New antibody analysis accelerates rational vaccine design: Scripps Research study illuminates humoral immune response to experimental vaccines

A team at Scripps Research has come up with a faster way to analyze the outcome of experimental vaccines against HIV and other pathogens. Their new system lets scientists quickly assess the full spectrum of antibodies produced in an individual in response to a pathogen or vaccine and determine if these antibodies are likely to

New model of a peripheral nervous system disease

Studying transthyretin amyloidoses-a group of progressive nerve and cardiac degenerative diseases caused by the buildup of misfolded transthyretin (TTR) proteins in the body-has long been hampered by the lack of animal models of the disease. Mice, for instance, don’t show the same symptoms as humans, even when misfolded TTR accumulates in their organs. Now, scientists

Stem cell research for cystic fibrosis leaps forward

The fight against cystic fibrosis (CF) has taken a major step forward, with pioneering research by University of Adelaide scientists showing that cells causing the debilitating genetic disorder could be successfully replaced with healthy ones. The research published in the journal Stem Cell Research and Therapy applies cell transplantation therapy, normally used in bone marrow

Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde: Healing mesenchymal cells morph and destroy muscles in models of spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy: Targeting IL-6-STAT3 signaling in fibro-adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cells

When a muscle is acutely injured — whether through accidental strain or intentional weight lifting — special repair cells called fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) rush to the rescue. These cells coordinate the activity of the immune system and muscle stem cells to replace and repair the torn tissue. Now, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery

Researchers solve mystery of how ALL enters the central nervous system: Rather than breach the blood-brain barrier, the leukemia cells use a unique pathway

A deadly feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is its invasion of the central nervous system. ALL in the central nervous system is very difficult to treat, because most drugs are blocked from the organ system due to a “blood-brain barrier” designed to protect the brain. How cancer cells enter the central nervous system has

Rise of the clones: Study identifies inherited and acquired mutations that drive precancerous blood condition

A new study led by researchers at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health has identified some of the first known inherited genetic variants that significantly raise a person’s likelihood of developing clonal hematopoiesis, an age-related white blood cell condition linked with higher risk of certain blood cancers and cardiovascular

Key molecule of aging discovered

Every cell and every organism ages sooner or later. But why is this so? Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg have now discovered for the first time a protein that represents a central switching point in the aging process. It controls the life span of an individual — from the fly to

Researchers find combination can enhance ipilimumab immunotherapy: Anti-CTLA-4 treatment triggers immune-suppressing EZH2 on T cells; clinical trial open

Using a targeted therapy to block a protein that suppresses T cell activity could improve cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The team showed that EZH2 is elevated in immune T cells in patients after treatment with

JAK inhibitors associated with aggressive lymphoma

Austrian researchers have discovered that a small number of patients taking targeted drugs known as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors to treat myelofibrosis may develop aggressive lymphomas. They also speculate that screening for a preexisting B-cell clone before starting therapy may help prevent this side effect and potentially save lives, according to a study published online