Tag: Stem Cells

Loss of protein p53 helps cancer cells multiply in ‘unfavourable’ conditions: The loss of tumor protein p53 ensures cancer cells can still multiply in a hostile environment that lacks proper growth stimuli

Researchers have discovered a novel consequence of loss of the tumour protein p53 that promotes cancer development, according to new findings in eLife. The study in mouse and human cells, from the Netherlands Cancer Institute, suggests that multiplication of cancer cells in the absence of appropriate growth stimuli is supported by the additional loss of

Novel mechanism for generating our skeleton

There are more than 200 bones in the human body. Bone is formed during embryonic and postnatal skeletogenesis by two distinct, well-organized processes, intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into chondrocytes to form a cartilaginous template, which, for long bones, induces bone formation through endochondral ossification. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (Erk5), which is

Zombie cells found in brains of mice prior to cognitive loss

Zombie cells are the ones that can’t die but are equally unable to perform the functions of a normal cell. These zombie, or senescent, cells are implicated in a number of age-related diseases. And with a new letter in Nature, Mayo Clinic researchers have expanded that list. In a mouse model of brain disease, scientists

Artificial cells are tiny bacteria fighters

“Lego block” artificial cells that can kill bacteria have been created by researchers at the University of California, Davis Department of Biomedical Engineering. The work is reported Aug. 29 in the journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. “We engineered artificial cells from the bottom-up — like Lego blocks — to destroy bacteria,” said Assistant Professor

How damaging immune cells develop during tuberculosis

Insights into how harmful white blood cells form during tuberculosis infection point to novel targets for pharmacological interventions, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Valentina Guerrini and Maria Laura Gennaro of Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, and colleagues. Foam cells are a type of white blood cell, known as

Massive effort yields image-based cell sorting technology

Invented over 50 years ago, flow cytometry-based cell sorting has become a widely used tool in biology labs for physically isolating cells based on their global surface marker expression profiles. But on August 27 in the journal Cell, an international, multi-institutional team of researchers unveil the next evolution in this critical process, “Image-Activated Cell Sorting,”

Stabilizing dysferlin-deficient muscle cell membrane improves muscle function: In experimental model of LGMD2B, vamorolone improves and prednisolone worsens myofiber repair

Healthy muscle cells rely on the protein dysferlin to properly repair the sarcolemmal membrane, a thin specialized membrane that serves a vital role in ensuring that muscle fibers are strong enough and have the necessary resources to contract. Mutations in the DYSF gene that produces this essential protein causes limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B

Kidney cancer’s developmental source revealed: First human kidney cell atlas study across the human lifespan

In the first experiment of its kind, scientists have revealed the precise identity of cancer cells of the most common childhood and adult kidney cancers. Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the University of Cambridge, University of Newcastle and their collaborators showed that the cancer cells are versions of specific healthy cells from developing or

New model of a peripheral nervous system disease

Studying transthyretin amyloidoses-a group of progressive nerve and cardiac degenerative diseases caused by the buildup of misfolded transthyretin (TTR) proteins in the body-has long been hampered by the lack of animal models of the disease. Mice, for instance, don’t show the same symptoms as humans, even when misfolded TTR accumulates in their organs. Now, scientists

Stem cell research for cystic fibrosis leaps forward

The fight against cystic fibrosis (CF) has taken a major step forward, with pioneering research by University of Adelaide scientists showing that cells causing the debilitating genetic disorder could be successfully replaced with healthy ones. The research published in the journal Stem Cell Research and Therapy applies cell transplantation therapy, normally used in bone marrow

Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde: Healing mesenchymal cells morph and destroy muscles in models of spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy: Targeting IL-6-STAT3 signaling in fibro-adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cells

When a muscle is acutely injured — whether through accidental strain or intentional weight lifting — special repair cells called fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) rush to the rescue. These cells coordinate the activity of the immune system and muscle stem cells to replace and repair the torn tissue. Now, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery

Electricity sparks neuronal diversity during brain development: Bioelectrical potential is driving force for stem cells to generate different types of neurons during embryogenesis

The cerebral cortex is a highly developed brain region, which allows intellectual functions such as conscious perception, anticipation of events and language. These functions are mediated by specific sets of neuronal circuits. To understand how these circuits emerge during development, researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, in collaboration with an American team, investigated

A 3-D model of a human heart ventricle: Bioengineers build a scale model of a heart ventricle that beats, survives for months in the lab

Harvard University researchers have bioengineered a three-dimensional model of a human left heart ventricle that could be used to study diseases, test drugs and develop patient-specific treatments for heart conditions such as arrhythmia. The tissue is engineered with a nanofiber scaffold seeded with human heart cells. The scaffold acts like a 3D template, guiding the

New platform poised to be next generation of genetic medicines: The novel tool has the potential to treat a variety of genetic diseases

A City of Hope scientist has discovered a gene-editing technology that could efficiently and accurately correct the genetic defects that underlie certain diseases, positioning the new tool as the basis for the next generation of genetic therapies. This editing platform, discovered by City of Hope’s Saswati Chatterjee, Ph.D., eventually may be used to cure inherited

New retinal ganglion cell subtypes emerge from single-cell RNA sequencing

Single-cell sequencing technologies are filling in fine details in the catalog of life. Researchers at the University of Connecticut Health Center (UConn Health) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) have identified 40 subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) along with the genetic markers and transcription factors that differentiate them. Thanks to recent advances in droplet-based single-cell

Novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts: Scientists optimize a procedure toward regenerative medicine for bone defects

Scientists from the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute have developed a new bone engineering technique called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering (SATE). The technique, described in a paper published online today in Scientific Reports, allows researchers to combine segments of bone engineered from stem cells to create large scale, personalized grafts that will