Category: Health Problems

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Pathophysiology

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL is the cancer of the lymphoid white blood cells. There are several risk factors that raise the risk of this cancer. However, the exact cause of this cancer is not yet known. Risk factors for ALL Some of the risk factors that may be associated with the causation of ALL

What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy?

Normal implantation process Every month, females of reproductive age release an egg or ovum from one of their ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This egg travels from the ovary towards the womb via the fallopian tube, where it may or may not be fertilized by sperm. The fallopian tubes are around 4 inches long and

What is Delirium?

Delirium is a state of mental confusion that can occur as a result of illness, surgery or with the use of some medications. Also called “acute confusional state,” delirium usually starts suddenly and can be frightening for the person experiencing it, as well as for those around them. Symptoms of delirium Some symptoms are common

What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) refers to a set of physical and mental defects that are caused by a mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy. The severity of FAS symptoms varies from child to child, but all defects that do occur are irreversible. No amount of alcohol has been shown to be safe to consume during pregnancy

Meningitis Mechanism

The meninges are the three membranes that along with the cerebrospinal fluid, enclose and protect the structures of the nervous system like the brain and the spinal cord. These consist of the pia mater (closest to the central nervous system organs), the arachnoid and the dura mater (farthest from the brain and spinal cord). They

What is a Parvovirus?

Parvoviridae is a name for a viral family that encompasses small, non-enveloped, isometric DNA viruses with linear, single-stranded genomes. Viruses from this family are commonly known as parvoviruses, with two subfamilies and a dozen of distinct genera. In the known biosphere, only parvoviruses have DNA genomes that are both single-stranded and linear. The parvoviruses infect

Vaccine Excipients

Vaccines are composed of the antigen preparation as well as some other ingredients. These serve to enhance the immune reaction to the vaccine (adjuvants), stabilize and prolong the shelf-life of the vaccine (stabilizers) and preserve the vaccine components (preservatives). These are termed excipients of the vaccine. Common excipients Common excipients present in vaccine preparations include:

Probiotic Side Effects

Probiotics are live yeasts and bacteria that are thought to confer several health benefits by restoring the natural balance of the gut flora when it has been disrupted. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this claim and research is still ongoing into the actual benefits of these “friendly” bacteria. Some areas where researchers

Breast Cancer Management

Breast cancer treatment has advanced to a stage that, if detected early, most women may survive much longer than they did a few decades ago. Who provides breast cancer treatment? Care for breast cancer involves a multidisciplinary team or a team of specialists who work together to provide the best care and therapy. The team

Tetanus Cause

Tetanus is a bacterial infection that is caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria. It can have serious and fatal outcomes, due to its effect on the nervous system and characteristic tightening of muscles in the body as a result. There is a vaccination available that can protect individuals from the causative bacteria and prevent the infection

What is Salmonella?

Salmonella is a ubiquitous human and animal pathogen which causes almost hundred million cases of gastroenteritis each year throughout the world. Salmonellosis in humans usually presents as a self-limiting food poisoning (gastroenteritis), albeit it can occasionally manifest as a serious systemic infection (enteric fever) which requires swift antibiotic treatment. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans

Autoimmunity Immunological Tolerance

The term autoimmunity refers to a failure of the body’s immune system to recognize its own cells and tissues as “self.” Instead, immune responses are launched against these cells and tissues as if they were foreign or invading bodies. Research conducted by Noel Rose and Witebsky in New York and Roitt and Doniach at University

Prevention of insect bites

Insect bites can be prevented mainly by avoidance. There are numerous precautions that may be taken to avoid getting bitten or stung by insects. Since insect bites may sometimes bear infectious diseases these precautions may be important. In addition those who have had an allergic reaction to an insect bite are likely to get a

Fabry Disease Symptoms

Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive disorder, meaning the condition is caused by a gene defect present on the X chromosome. Males who inherit the gene defect on their single X chromosome experience a more severe form of the disease compared with females, who may also inherit a normal X chromosome. The symptoms of Fabry

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Classification

Leukemias are classified according to their acute and chronic progress as well as according to their lymphoid or myeloid cell origins. Acute myeloid leukemia is further classified into subtypes. Most cancers and solid tumors are classified according to cell type, aggressiveness and propensity to spread to other organs. The classifications of AML however are based

What is Rheumatism?

There are several diseases that are classified under rheumatic disorders. The term rheumatism is a loosely used layperson term to describe rheumatoid arthritis. The rheumatoid disorders include those affecting muscles, joints and bones. They are common and have a huge impact on the health of a vast population worldwide. The more severe conditions lead to

What are Uterine Fibroids?

Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that may grow in various regions of the uterus of a woman. They are relatively common and affect 20% of childbearing women and half of all women by the age of 50. Size and Location Fibroids can vary greatly in size, ranging from microscopically small to several pounds in weight

Oxygen Therapy Methods

Oxygen used in the medical setting is separated using several different methods including chemical reaction and fractional distillation. This oxygen is then either used immediately or stored for future use. The main sources of oxygen therapy include: Liquid storage – Liquid oxygen is stored in tanks which are kept at a chilled temperature until the

Interstitial Cystitis Treatments

There is currently no cure for interstitial cystitis and the aim of treatment is to relieve symptoms, with varying degrees of success depending on the individual patient. Diet and Lifestyle Simple changes to diet and lifestyle activities can lead to a significant improvement in symptoms for many patients with interstitial cystitis. It is often beneficial

Frozen Shoulder Symptoms

The main symptoms of frozen shoulder are pain, stiffness and restricted movement in the shoulder. These symptoms may be mild or they may be severe enough to affect a person’s ability to carry out day-to-day activities such as driving and dressing. Medical terms for frozen shoulder include adhesive capsulitis and shoulder contracture. Frozen shoulder occurs