Headaches may increase the risk for dry eye disease (DED), according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published online Oct. 19 in the Annals of Medicine.
Shuyi Liu, from Dalian Medical University in China, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature search to identify studies evaluating whether headache is associated with the risk for DED.
Based on 11 included studies (3.6 million individuals), the researchers found that all-cause headache was associated with a higher risk for DED (odds ratio, 1.586). Across headache types, migraine (odds ratio, 1.503), tension (odds ratio, 1.610), and cluster headaches (odds ratio, 2.120) were all associated with a higher risk for DED.
Compared with cross-sectional studies and cohort studies, the risk for DED was found to be slightly higher in case-control studies (odds ratios, 1.600 and 1.440, respectively, versus 1.707). All-cause headache in America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania were all associated with a higher risk for DED.
“Our study indicates that headache increases the risk of DED, especially in migraine patients. However, more relevant studies are still required to identify the exact pathophysiological process behind this clinical phenomenon,” the authors write. “The findings of our study can be meaningful in the prevention and treatment of DED.”
Shuyi Liu et al, Risk of dry eye in headache patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2022.2133165
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