Tag: Prostate Cancer

Pancreas on a chip: Organ-on-a-chip and stem-cell tech combined: Organ-on-a-chip and stem-cell tech

By combining two powerful technologies, scientists are taking diabetes research to a whole new level. In a study led by Harvard University’s Kevin Kit Parker, microfluidics and human, insulin-producing beta cells have been integrated in an “Islet-on-a-Chip.” The new device makes it easier for scientists to screen insulin-producing cells before transplanting them into a patient,

Certain metabolites linked to stem cell function in the intestine: Molecules called ketone bodies may improve stem cells’ ability to regenerate new intestinal tissue

MIT biologists have discovered an unexpected effect of a ketogenic, or fat-rich, diet: They showed that high levels of ketone bodies, molecules produced by the breakdown of fat, help the intestine to maintain a large pool of adult stem cells, which are crucial for keeping the intestinal lining healthy. The researchers also found that intestinal

Special fibroblasts help pancreatic cancer cells evade immune detection

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Mostly chemoresistant, PDAC so far has no effective treatment. Understanding the connective tissue, called stroma, that surrounds, nurtures, and even protects PDAC tumors, is key to developing effective therapeutics. “PDAC patients are diagnosed really late, so we don’t know they’re

New strategy of reprogramming regulatory T cells may improve cancer therapies: Converting immunosuppressive cells into inflammatory cells appears to prime tumors for immune checkpoint blockade

While therapies that harness the power of the immune system against cancer have made remarkable progress against certain types of tumors, they still remain ineffective in most cancer patients. A new study from the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases (CIID) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describes a method of reprogramming the regulatory T cells

Targeted therapy proves effective against aggressive rare blood cancer: Clinical study treating BPDCN with tagraxofusp led to first FDA approval for the disease

A multi-institutional clinical trial has given good results for a targeted therapy to treat a rare, aggressive blood cancer known as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic-cell neoplasm (BPDCN). Details on the trial, which supported Food and Drug Administration approval of the tagraxofusp therapy in December 2018, have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Diagnosed

Breakthrough in knowledge of how some sarcomas arise

The origin of certain cancers in the sarcoma group is associated with a hitherto unknown interaction among different proteins. Findings now being presented create the opportunity to test new treatments of these forms of sarcoma. “We now know which mechanisms to shine the spotlight on,” says Pierre Åman, Professor of Tumor Biology at Sahlgrenska Academy,

Radiomics predicts who will benefit from chemotherapy

Using data from computed tomography (CT) images, researchers may be able to predict which lung cancer patients will respond to chemotherapy, according to a new study published in the journal Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. Platinum-based chemotherapy is typically the first-line treatment of advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only about one in four patients responds

Advancing therapy by measuring the ‘games’ cancer cells play

Cleveland: Despite rapid advances in targeted therapies for cancer, tumors commonly develop resistance to treatment. When resistance emerges, tumor cells continue to grow unchecked, despite all attempts to slow cancer progression. While mutations in cancer cells significantly affect drug sensitivity, it is increasingly recognized that ecological interactions between cells can also play a role. Jacob

These four complaints indicate prostate cancer

What are the symptoms that indicate a change in the prostate? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Every year, around 60,000 new cases occur. According to information of the German cancer society every fourth Tumor in men develops in the prostate. Approximately 10 percent of the cases end fatally. Thus, the prostate

White blood cells related to allergies may also be harnessed to destroy cancer cells: Eosinophil immune cells are capable of killing colon cancer cells, researchers say

A new Tel Aviv University study finds that eosinophils — white blood cells that may have played an evolutionary role in combating parasites, but which are today responsible for chronic asthma and modern allergies — may be used to eliminate malignant colon cancer cells. The research was led by Prof. Ariel Munitz of the Department

Inflammatory bowel disease linked to prostate cancer: Men with inflamed guts are four to five times at risk for prostate cancer

Men with inflammatory bowel disease have four to five times higher risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer, reports a 20-year study from Northwestern Medicine. This is the first report to show men with inflammatory bowel disease have higher than average PSA (prostate-specific antigen) values, and this group also has a significantly higher risk of

Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome

Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the