Tag: Birth Defects

Researchers refine guidelines for pediatric brain injuries: Measuring carbon dioxide lines through the artery more effective than noninvasive method

When a child suffers a head trauma, medical professionals are in high gear to prevent further damage to a developing brain. Measuring and regulating the child’s level of carbon dioxide is critical to ensuring the brain is getting enough blood oxygen to prevent a secondary brain injury. High carbon dioxide can increase intracranial pressure, while

Brain network activity can improve in epilepsy patients after surgery

Successful epilepsy surgery can improve brain connectivity similar to patterns seen in people without epilepsy, according to a new study published in the journal Neurosurgery. The Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) study of 15 people with temporal lobe epilepsy is the first to show improvements in brain networks after surgery compared to a group of

Detecting dementia’s damaging effects before it’s too late

Scientists might have found an early detection method for some forms of dementia, according to new research by the University of Arizona and the University of Toronto’s Baycrest Health Sciences Centre. According to the study published in the journal Neuropsychologia last month, patients with a rare neurodegenerative brain disorder called Primary Progressive Aphasia, or PPA,

Healthy hearts need two proteins working together: Research could be a step toward a treatment to prevent heart attacks

Two proteins that bind to stress hormones work together to maintain a healthy heart in mice, according to scientists at the National Institutes of Health and their collaborators. These proteins, stress hormone receptors known as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), act in concert to help support heart health. When the signaling between

Scientists hunt down the brain circuit responsible for alcohol cravings: Study may open the door to developing drug therapies or even gene therapies for alcohol addiction

Scientists at Scripps Research have found that they can reverse the desire to drink in alcohol-dependent rats — with the flip of a switch. The researchers were able to use lasers to temporarily inactivate a specific neuronal population, reversing alcohol-seeking behavior and even reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal. “This discovery is exciting — it

EEG helps scientists predict epileptic seizures minutes in advance: Prevention: Edible acid can stabilize misfiring neurons

Elizabeth Delacruz can’t crawl or toddle around like most youngsters nearing their second birthday. A rare metabolic disorder that decimated her mobility has also led to cortical blindness — her brain is unable to process images received from an otherwise healthy set of brown eyes. And multiple times a day Elizabeth suffers seizures that continually

Failing heart cells trigger self-protection mechanism: Stress transforms an important structural protein into a gene regulator that protects against heart failure

An unexpected finding that links a structural heart protein to gene regulation following heart stress suggests potential new avenues for developing heart failure therapies. The work led by University of Iowa heart researcher Long-Sheng Song, MD, focuses on a protein called junctophilin-2 (JP2). Previous work from Song’s lab has shown that JP2 is a structural

Studies highlight lasting effects of early life stress on the genome, gut, and brain: Understanding targets of childhood stress suggests new strategies for intervention

Excessive stress during fetal development or early childhood can have long-term consequences for the brain, from increasing the likelihood of brain disorders and affecting an individual’s response to stress as an adult to changing the nutrients a mother may pass on to her babies in the womb. The new research suggests novel approaches to combat

Chest pain drug falls short in preventing first episode of ventricular arrhythmia or death: But, drug found to reduce recurrent ventricular tachycardia in major multi-center trial

A clinical trial of more than 1,000 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) found that the drug ranolazine (commonly used to treat chest pain; brand name Ranexa®) was safe but didn’t significantly decrease the likelihood of the first occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or death in this high-risk population. The study was published recently

For women undergoing IVF, is fresh or frozen embryo transfer best? Some women benefit from a fresh embryo transfer while others benefit from delay

The world’s first baby born via in-vitro fertilization turned 40 years old this summer. Still, after four decades, IVF is a relatively new field with ongoing debate on how to get the best results for families who have placed their hopes — and often their personal savings — into fertility treatment. IVF experts disagree about

Program significantly reduces delay in autism diagnosis

When Katie New first suspected her son had autism, she had to wait 18 months for a diagnosis. She also had to travel nearly 100 miles from her hometown of Poplar Bluff, Missouri, to see an autism specialist in Cape Girardeau. When she had similar concerns regarding her younger child, she was able to get

Genetic basis of heart rhythms explored in large population study: Better treatments for atrial fibrillation and heart block could emerge from greater understanding of the heart’s electrical activity

New knowledge about biological processes related to the heart’s electrical activity has been gained through a major genome science study. The research had the largest sample size ever of a project of this type. The molecular mechanisms explored in this study offer insights into cardiac electrical diseases and could suggest avenues of drug research for

Novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts: Scientists optimize a procedure toward regenerative medicine for bone defects

Scientists from the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute have developed a new bone engineering technique called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering (SATE). The technique, described in a paper published online today in Scientific Reports, allows researchers to combine segments of bone engineered from stem cells to create large scale, personalized grafts that will

Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain: Modulating CHD8 might help some people with complex condition

New preclinical research shows a gene already linked to a subset of people with autism spectrum disorder is critical to healthy neuronal connections in the developing brain, and its loss can harm those connections to help fuel the complex developmental condition. Scientists at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center report in Developmental Cell their data clarify

Adolescent binge drinking disrupts mouse memory in adulthood: Study could help scientists better understand development of alcohol use disorders in adults

Excessive drinking during adolescence may interfere with the activity of brain cells needed for sustaining short term memory, according to new research in adolescent male mice published in JNeurosci. The study could help scientists better understand the development of alcohol use disorders in adults. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the behavior-management abilities it supports —