Tag: cell

Hematopoietic stem cell marker: A key player in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis

A group of researchers at Osaka University revealed that endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM), a surface marker for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and vascular endothelial cells (ECs), played an important role in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis in mice, particularly in the development of adult-type erythropoiesis. Their research results were published in Stem Cell Reports. In

Treatment for ‘low T’ could someday come from a single skin cell, research shows

USC researchers have successfully grown human, testosterone-producing cells in the lab, paving the way to someday treat low testosterone with personalized replacement cells. In today’s Proceedings from the National Academy of Sciences, scientists describe how they transformed stem cells into functioning Leydig cells—the cells in the testes that produce the male sex hormone. “Our study

Phase 1 study shows novel KRAS inhibitor well tolerated by patients with adenocarcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer

A clinical trial testing the toxicity of a KRAS inhibitor demonstrated early promising antitumor activity and few adverse side effects in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring KRAS G12C mutation, according to research presented today at the IASLC 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer, hosted by the International Association for the Study of

Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs

A team of Brown University researchers has developed a new computer model that simulates the way red blood cells become misshapen by sickle cell disease. The model, described in a paper published in Science Advances, could be useful in the preclinical evaluation of drugs aimed at preventing the sickling process. “There are currently only two

New stem cell combination could help to repair damaged hearts

A combination of heart cells derived from human stem cells could be the answer to developing a desperately-needed treatment for heart failure, according to new research part-funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) and published in Nature Biotechnology. Researchers have found that, by transplanting an area of damaged tissue with a combination of both heart

Cell division at high speed

In malignant tumours, the cells usually proliferate quickly and uncontrollably. A research team from the Biocenter of Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany, has discovered that two important regulators of cell division can interact in this process. If this is the case, affected patients have particularly poor chances of survival. A special form of lung

Cohesin down-regulation drives hematopoietic stem cell aging

Aging is characterized by increases in inflammation and decreases in stem cell function. The relationship between these processes remains incompletely understood. Researchers of the Leibniz Institute on Aging (FLI) in Jena, Germany, identified a new role of the protein cohesin in mediating inflammatory signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Cohesin is required for gene regulation

Road to cell death more clearly identified for Parkinson’s disease

In experiments performed in mice, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified the cascade of cell death events leading to the physical and intellectual degeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease. Results of the study, published Nov. 2 in Science, suggest promising new targets for drugs that could interrupt Parkinson’s disease progression. The study, the researchers say,

How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces

It has long been known that so-called place cells in the human hippocampus are responsible for coding one’s position in space. A related type of brain cell, called grid cells, encodes a variety of positions that are evenly distributed across space. This results in a kind of honeycomb pattern tiling the space. The cells exhibiting

Malicious brain cell identified—surprising finding fills gap in understanding astrocytes’ role in brain disease

Astrocytes—the star-shaped cells of our brain—are very busy. Their job description includes maintaining the blood-brain barrier, removing excess neurotransmitters, repairing brain tissue and more. Their important role in brain function suggests astrocytes are also involved in disease. Scientists are particularly interested in uncovering how they may drive inflammation in the brain. Brain inflammation is linked

Perinatal hypoxia associated with long-term cerebellar learning deficits and Purkinje cell misfiring

Oxygen deprivation associated with preterm birth leaves telltale signs on the brains of newborns in the form of alterations to cerebellar white matter at the cellular and the physiological levels. Now, an experimental model of this chronic hypoxia reveals that those cellular alterations have behavioral consequences. Chronic sublethal hypoxia is associated with locomotor miscoordination and

New immune defenders added to blood cell

Our researchers have revealed the identities of new subsets of immune cells at the frontline of our body’s defenses against infection. The research team’s discovery expands the understanding of immune cells called granulocytes – immune cells that can trigger inflammation and engulf microbes to slow an infection’s progress. As well as protecting against infection, granulocytes

New retinal ganglion cell subtypes emerge from single-cell RNA sequencing

Single-cell sequencing technologies are filling in fine details in the catalog of life. Researchers at the University of Connecticut Health Center (UConn Health) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) have identified 40 subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) along with the genetic markers and transcription factors that differentiate them. Thanks to recent advances in droplet-based single-cell

Often overlooked glial cell is key to learning and memory

Glial cells surround neurons and provide support—not unlike hospital staff and nurses supporting doctors to keep operations running smoothly. These often-overlooked cells, which include oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. But these cells do more than support neurons. They also actively influence them, University of California, Riverside,