The incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes continues to rise among children and adolescents in the United States, new data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study show.
The SEARCH data demonstrate an increase in the youth population aged 0-19 diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in five representative US centers. Between 2002 and 2018, the annual incidence rose by about 2% per year for type 1 diabetes and 5% per year for type 2 diabetes. The rates of increase for both types were greater among non-White than White youth.
These increases “will result in an expanding population of young adults at risk of developing early complications of diabetes whose healthcare needs will exceed those of their peers,” write Lynne E. Wagenknecht, DrPH, of Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and colleagues in their article, recently published in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.
“It’s a troubling trend in young people whose healthcare needs will exceed those of their peers,” added Wagenknecht, in a press release from her institution.
In an accompanying editorial, Jonathan E. Shaw, MD, and Dianna J. Magliano, PhD, both at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia, write that one of the most “concerning findings” was a 7%-9% annual increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Hispanic, Asian, and Pacific Islander populations.
“This is a healthcare crisis in the making…Youth and young-adult-onset type 2 diabetes are growing problems leading to poor outcomes and to widening social inequality, adversely affecting a population that might already be disadvantaged. Better information about its natural history, prevention, and management is urgently needed,” they write.
Upward Trends in Both Diabetes Types
Overall, 18,169 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 5293 with type 2 diabetes were identified over the 17-year study period in SEARCH. After adjustment for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, there was a significant increase in type 1 diabetes incidence from 19.5 cases/100,000 population in 2002-2003 to 22.2/100,000 in 2017-2018, a 2.02% annual increase.
The upward trend was even greater for type 2 diabetes, from 9.0/100,000 in 2002-2003 to 17.9/100,000 in 2017-2018, a 5.31% annual increase.
The annual rate of increase in type 1 diabetes was highest among Asian/Pacific Islander youth (4.84%), followed by Hispanic (4.14%) and Black youth (2.93%), which all significantly rose over the 17 years.
For type 2 diabetes, significant annual rates of increase were also highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (8.92%), followed by Hispanic (7.17%) and Black youth (5.99%).
Among youth aged 15-19 years, the overall incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes (19.7 vs 14.6/100,000).
The incidence of type 2 diabetes may be rising due to increased rates of obesity, as well as increased screening of at-risk youth, the authors say.
And, the editorialists note, obesity is also a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.
Peak incidence of type 1 diabetes occurred at age 10 years, while for type 2 diabetes, the peak was at 16 years. There were also seasonal peaks, occurring in January for type 1 diabetes and in August for type 2 diabetes. Those seasonal patterns have been previously reported, possibly due to increased viral infections and decreased sun exposure for the former, and increased physical exams in preparation for school in the latter, the authors speculate.
Shaw and Magliano note that the reduced incidence after age 16 years “might simply reflect a failure to diagnose,” suggesting that there will likely be an upturn in incidence in the subsequent decade.
The editorialists also point out: “Not only does the long duration of diabetes that youth-onset leads to cause a large burden of fatal and nonfatal complications, but it magnifies intergenerational effects.”
“When type 2 diabetes is already present before pregnancy, birth outcomes are worse, and the long-term metabolic health of the offspring is adversely affected. This does not bode well for the epidemic of diabetes and its complications.”
The study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. The authors and Magliano have reported no relevant financial relationships. Shaw has reported receiving honoraria for lectures and for advisory boards and grants from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Sanofi, Roche, Mylan, and Zuellig Pharma.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. Published online February 28, 2023. Abstract, Editorial
Miriam E. Tucker is a freelance journalist based in the Washington, DC, area. She is a regular contributor to Medscape, with other work appearing in The Washington Post, NPR’s Shots blog, and Diabetes Forecast magazine. She is on Twitter: @MiriamETucker.
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