Tag: function

New approach reveals structure and function of individual synapses

A common analogy used to describe the brain is that it consists of tiny interconnected computers. Each one of these computers, or neurons, process and relay activity from thousands of other neurons, forming complex networks that allow us to perceive our surroundings, make decisions, and guide our actions. Communication between neurons occurs through tiny connections called synapses,

Low physical function and low muscle mass increase the risk for accelerated bone loss in older hip fracture patients

Low physical function and low muscle mass after hip fracture increased the risk for accelerated bone deterioration in older hip fracture patients. Acknowledgement of the risk factors is important for bone health and overall recovery. “Substantial decrements in physical function, muscle and bone strength occur after hip fracture, which markedly increase the risk for a

Team tracks integrin’s role in lung function

Beta-1 integrin, a critical component of epithelial extracellular matrix receptors, is essential for normal lung function in adulthood, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have discovered. In a mouse model, deleting the gene for beta-1 integrin from the epithelial cells lining the alveoli of the adult lung, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Stimulating deeper insights into brain function

Modeling changes in brain activity over time provides deeper insights into learning and behavioral responses. Observing the brain’s response to repeated stimuli has helped KAUST researchers develop a method for modeling connectivity patterns in neural networks. Mapping connectivity patterns will help to better understand brain function, ultimately improving diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases and

Childhood risk profiles affect middle-age lung function

(HealthDay)—Profiles of childhood respiratory risk factors predict middle-age lung function levels and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, according to a study published in the September issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society. Dinh S. Bui, from the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues assessed 11 childhood risk factor profiles (documented at

New information to understand regulation of muscle function in muscular dystrophy patients

Scientists from the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and from University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, have found new functions and structural details of muscle attachment structures. The research is important for the basic understanding of regulation of muscle function, for instance, in muscular dystrophy patients and for muscle adaptation in physical activity and sports. In multicellular

Left ventricular systolic function after pulmonary valve replacement

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , Ali N. Zaidi and W. Aaron Kay from Columbus Ohio Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program, The Heart Center, Nationwide Children’s Hospital and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology, The Heart Center,

Preschool and school-age irritability predict reward-related brain function

Preschool irritability and concurrent irritability were uniquely associated with aberrant patterns of reward-related brain connectivity, highlighting the importance of developmental timing of irritability for brain function, finds a study published in the June 2018 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP). “Irritability is one of the most frequent

Executive function improved with prenatal exposure to SSRIs

(HealthDay)—Children with prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (pSRI) have better executive function (EF) at age 12 years, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, held from May 5 to 8 in Toronto. Sarah Hutchison, Ph.D., from British Columbia Children’s Hospital in Vancouver, and colleagues followed 51 children