Tag: brain

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy

The human brain has about as many neurons as glial cells. These are divided into four major groups: the microglia, the astrocytes, the NG2 glial cells, and the oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes function primarily as a type of cellular insulating tape: They form long tendrils, which consist largely of fat-like substances and do not conduct electricity. These

Exploring the role of competitive brain processes in artistic cognition

For many years, neuroscientists worldwide have been trying to understand the neural and cognitive processes underpinning artistic expression. While past findings have identified a number of brain areas that could be associated with the creation of different forms of art, scientists have yet to attain a full and comprehensive picture of the neural processes behind

Brain tissue yields clues to causes of PTSD

A post-mortem analysis of brain tissue from people who had been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may help explain enduring mysteries about the disorder, such as why women are more susceptible to it and whether a dampened immune system response plays a role in dealing with stress, a team headed by Yale University researchers

Teenag who 'switched off' half her brain has to relearn how to talk

When Imogen Golder was four years old, she began to have life-threatening seizures. It took 12 years for her to finally get a diagnosis of rasmussen’s encephalitis, a rare inflammatory neurological disease that can cause dementia. Sufferers of the illness experience frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, weakness on one side

Scientists snap together molecular building blocks of brain computing

Synapses are specialized brain structures where learning and memory occur. The efficient transmission of synaptic signals relies on the delicate structure and complex molecular composition of the synapses. However, the small size (several hundred nanometers in diameter) and heterogeneous nature of the synapses pose significant challenges in direct observation of the molecules inside synapses. Based

Millimetre-precision drug delivery to the brain

Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method for concentrating and releasing drugs in the brain with pinpoint accuracy. This could make it possible in the future to deliver psychiatric and cancer drugs and other medications only to those regions of the brain where this is medically desirable. Today, this is practically impossible—drugs traveling through

‘Social cells’ related to social behavior identified in the brain

A research team led by Professor Takumi Toru of Kobe University’s Graduate School of Medicine (also a Senior Visiting Scientist at RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research) have identified ‘social cells’ in the brain that are related to social behavior. The cells were identified via Ca imaging conducted using a microendoscope. It is expected that

New PET radiotracer proven safe and effective in imaging malignant brain tumors

A first-in-human study presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 Annual Meeting has demonstrated the safety, favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetry profile of 64Cu-EBRGD, a new, relatively long-lived PET tracer, in patients with glioblastomas. The radiotracer proved to be a superior, high-contrast imaging diagnostic in patients, visualizing tumors that express low or

Focused ultrasound shows promise against deadliest brain tumor

An innovative use of focused ultrasound being pioneered at the University of Virginia School of Medicine is showing promise against glioblastoma, the deadliest brain tumor, and could prove useful against other difficult-to-treat cancers. The technique hits cancer cells with a drug that sensitizes them to sound waves, then blasts them with focused ultrasound. The sound

Protein shredder regulates fat metabolism in the brain

A protein shredder that occurs in cell membranes of brain cells apparently also indirectly regulates the fat metabolism. This is shown by a recent study by the University of Bonn. The shredder, known as gamma-secretase, is considered a possible target for drugs against cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the results suggest that such agents may