Tag: identified

‘Social cells’ related to social behavior identified in the brain

A research team led by Professor Takumi Toru of Kobe University’s Graduate School of Medicine (also a Senior Visiting Scientist at RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research) have identified ‘social cells’ in the brain that are related to social behavior. The cells were identified via Ca imaging conducted using a microendoscope. It is expected that

Missing component of innate immune signaling identified

How cells recognize pathogens and alert the immune system swiftly is a fundamental process of high importance for the survival of any species, including humans. A key role is ascribed to so-called adapters—little molecular platforms inside cells where signals from pathogen detectors are integrated for safety and accuracy and conveyed to lasting signals leading to

Neurons that encode sweetness identified in mice

Researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Japan have identified the neurons responsible for relaying sweet taste signals to the gustatory thalamus and cortex in mice. While the peripheral taste system has been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the contribution of CNS gustatory neurons in the sensation of taste. In this

MANF identified as a rejuvenating factor in parabiosis

Older mice who are surgically joined with young mice in order to share a common bloodstream get stronger and healthier, making parabiosis one of the hottest topics in age research. Publishing in Nature Metabolism, researchers from the Buck Institute report that MANF (mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor) is one of the factors responsible for rejuvenating the

Potential therapeutic target for lung fibrosis identified

In an article published online by Frontiers in Endocrinology, researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) report that they have identified a potential therapeutic target for lung fibrosis or scarring. They showed in a preclinical model that the protein promotes fibrosis by turning on profibrotic genes and increasing levels of profibrotic factors, including

Road to cell death more clearly identified for Parkinson’s disease

In experiments performed in mice, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified the cascade of cell death events leading to the physical and intellectual degeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease. Results of the study, published Nov. 2 in Science, suggest promising new targets for drugs that could interrupt Parkinson’s disease progression. The study, the researchers say,

Promising new therapeutic approach against Ebola virus identified

In a new study researchers have developed a two-pronged approach for targeting Ebola virus infection using linked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs)designed to interfere both genes essential for translation of Ebola virus genes and to block production of an intracellular human protein needed for the virus to enter cells. The results of using LNA

LincRNAs identified in human fat tissue

A large team of researchers from the U.S. and China has succeeded in identifying a number of RNA fragments found in human fat tissue. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine the group describes their study of the fragments they found and their possible links with obesity. Prior research has reported RNA

Neural circuit mechanisms of emotion identified

According to a report by the World Health Organization, close to 1 in 10 people in the world are affected by anxiety and/or depression. Alarmingly, the amount has nearly doubled, from 416 million to 615 million, between 1990 and 2013. Since adequate treatments are still lacking for many patients, the scientists at the Max Planck

A new molecular target identified in depression

The discovery of a new mechanism involved in depression – and a way to target it with a drug as effective as classical antidepressants—provides new understanding of this illness and could pave the way for treatments with fewer side effects. In a study published in Nature Medicine, a team of scientists at McGill University and

Protein responsible for leukemia’s aggressiveness identified

Researchers have identified a protein critical for the aggressiveness of T-cell leukemia, a subtype of leukemia that afflicts children and adults. The identification of ubiquitin-fusion degradation 1 (UFD1) allows for better understanding what causes leukemia to progress and become highly aggressive and treatment-resistant, and may lead to a new treatment for this type of cancer.

Culprit in reducing effectiveness of insulin identified

Scientists at Osaka University have discovered that Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) secreted from adipocytes reduces the effectiveness of insulin in adipocytes and decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake. Insulin is a hormone that facilitates glucose uptake. Insulin binds to cellular insulin receptors to activate Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS-1), taking in sugar through phosphorylation of Akt. If

Researchers identified a protein associated with breast cancer

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a protein that is strongly associated with metastatic breast cancer and that could be a target for future therapies. High levels of the protein ZMYND8 are correlated with poor survival in breast cancer patients, said Dr. Weibo Luo, Assistant Professor of Pathology and Pharmacology, and with the